The journal "Russian Economic Development" and its founder and publisher, the Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy Foundation, support the policy aimed at compliance with the principles of publishing ethics, and recognize that monitoring compliance with the principles of publishing (editorial) ethics is one of the main components of reviewing and publishing. 

1. The Principles of professional ethics to govern the publisher's practices

As part of its practices, the publisher shall bear responsibility for making public the works created by authors, which shall entail the necessity to comply with the following fundamental principles and procedures:

1.1. To promote the compliance of the editorial staff, the editing and publishing group, the editorial board, the reviewers and the authors with their ethical responsibilities in accordance with these requirements.

1.2. To aid the journal's editorial staff in dealing with complaints concerning the ethical issues arising in connection with the published materials, and help them in their interaction with other journals and/or publishers, if this conduces to the performance of their duties by the editors.

1.3. To be always prepared to publish corrections, explanations, retractions and apologies, whenever necessary.

1.4. To provide the journal's editorial staff with the possibility to prevent publications that may constitute plagiarism or contain invalid data.

1.5. The publisher (or editor-in-chief) may reject a manuscript or demand that the author should correct it, if the latter has been prepared with violations of the manuscript preparation rules established by the journal.

1.6. The authors of the works published in the journal shall retain full ownership rights thereto. Nobody may use these works without a preliminary notification of and permission granted by the author.

1.7. Each manuscript received for publication / reviewing shall be treated as a confidential document. It shall not be shown to and discussed with other persons, with the exception of persons empowered to do so by the editor.

1.8. To place information concerning financial support of a study, if the author includes such information in their paper.

1.9. On having identified any contentual, grammatical, stylistic and other errors, the editorial staff shall be obliged to make every effort to correct such errors.

1.10. To coordinate with the author the editorial alterations and corrections.

1.11. Not to delay the journal's issues.

2. The Principles of professional ethics to govern the editor-in-chief's practices

In the framework of their activity, the editor-in-chief shall bear responsibility for making public the authors' works, which shall entail the necessity to comply with the following fundamental principles:

2.1. A decision concerning publication must be based on a solid judgment as to the incontestable reliability of the submitted data and the scientific significance of the submitted work.

2.2. To assess the intellectual content of a manuscript irrespectively of the race, gender, sexual orientation, religious views, origin, citizenship, social status or political preferences of its author(s).

2.3. The unpublished data submitted as part of a manuscript must not be used for personal purposes or transferred to third parties without a written consent of the author. The information or ideas received in the course of editing and associated with potential advantages must remain confidential and may not be used for the purpose of deriving personal benefits.

2.4. Not to allow the publication of information if there is sufficient grounds to believe that it constitutes plagiarism.

2.5. The editor-in-chief, in the course of their activity, shall be obliged:

– to constantly improve the journal;

– to follow the principle of freedom of opinion;

– to strive to satisfy the needs of the journal's readers and authors;

– to never be influenced by business or political interests;

– to be guided, when making decisions concerning the publication of submitted materials, by the following fundamental criteria: the relevance of the manuscript to the journal's scope; the relevance, newness, and scientific significance of the submitted article; clarity of language; reliability of the results and proper formulation of the conclusions. The quality and relevance of a study shall provide the foundation for the decision concerning publication;

– to implement reasonable measures in order to ensure high quality of published materials and protect the confidentiality of personal information;

– to give consideration to recommendations offered by the reviewers when making a final decision concerning the publication of an article. The responsibility for the publication decision shall be borne exclusively by the journal's editorial board;

– to properly substantiate their decision in an event of their acceptance or rejection of an article;

– to provide the author(s) of the material being reviewed with an opportunity to substantiate their researcher viewpoint;

– when the composition of the editorial board has been changed, not to overturn the decisions concerning publication of materials made by the previous editorial board.

2.6. The editor-in-chief, together with the publisher, must not fail to provide an answer to any protests of claims concerning the reviewed manuscripts or published materials.

3. The ethical principles to govern the reviewer's practices

The reviewer shall conduct scientific expert's estimation of the materials submitted by authors, and so shall act in an unbiased manner, which shall entail the implementation of the following principles:

3.1. The manuscript accepted for reviewing must be treated as a confidential document that may not be handed over for the purpose of informing or being discussed by third parties, unless the latter have been granted powers to do so by the editorial staff.

3.2. The reviewer is obliged to provide an objective and well-substantiated estimation of the stated results of a study and to offer clearly substantiated recommendations. No personal criticism of the author is allowed.

3.3. The comments and recommendations of the reviewer must be objective and relevant, their goal being to improve the scientific value of a manuscript.

3.4. The unpublished information contained in a submitted article may not be used by the reviewer in his or her own professional work without a written permission by its author. The confidential information or ideas obtained in the course of reviewing shall be kept secret and must not be used for the purpose of deriving personal benefits.

4. The ethical principles to govern the practices of the author of a scientific publication

The author (or group of authors), when submittingе materials to a scientific journal, shall be aware that they bear primary responsibility for the newness and reliability of the results of their scientific study, which shall entail compliance with the following principles:

4.1. To submit reliable results of completed studies. No deliberately erroneous or falsified assumptions can be acceptable.

4.2. To guarantee that the study results as stated in the manuscript are original. In the event of having borrowed certain fragments or statements, references should be made to the publications that have influenced the content of the work in question.

4.3 All the persons that have made significant individual research contributions must be named as co-authors. If any person has participated in any significant part of the project, that participation should be acknowledged, or they should be listed among the authors.

4.4. To bear responsibility for the fact that a given work is published for the first time, and not to allow duplication. If any fragments of previous studies are mentioned, a reference to an earlier publication is necessary, with a statement as to how it differs from the new one.

4.5. Not to submit to the journal the manuscript that has been submitted to another journal and is being considered there, or to submit an article that has already been published in another journal.

4.6. To comply with ethical norms when voicing criticism or comments concerning the studies conducted by third parties.

4.7. When discovering a significant error or inaccuracy in the published article, to urgently notify the journal's editor-in-chief thereof, and to cooperate with the editor-in-chief in order to publish a refutation or correction with regard to that article.

5. Confidentiality and objectivity

Each manuscript accepted for reviewing must be treated as a confidential document. It may not be shown to or discussed with other persons, unless the latter have been granted powers to do so by the editor-in-chief. The reviews must be done objectively. The reviewer must state their viewpoint clearly and provide proper substantiation thereto.

6. Originality and plagiarism

The author of an article must guarantee that they have written an entirely original work, and in case the author has made use of the work by and/or quotations from other authors, a proper reference should be included, or this fact should be mentioned in the text.

7. Authorship

The authorship shall be restricted to those persons who have made substantial contribution to the concept, planning, implementation or interpretation of the described study.

8. Information disclosure and conflict of interests

All the authors shall disclose, in their manuscript, the existence of a financial or other significant conflict of interests that could be interpreted as capable of influencing the results of their manuscript's estimation. All the project funding sources must be disclosed.

9. Participation in investigations of ethics violations

In the event of ethical claims in regard to the manuscript reviewed or materials published, the editorial staff together with the publisher shall resort to proper measures, which in a general case shall involve interacting with the author(s) of a relevant manuscript and considering the submitted complaint or request, but may also involve interacting with relevant organizations and research centers.

10. Requirements to manuscripts

The author of an article describing an original study must submit the reliable results thereof, as well as an objective discussion of that study. The data reported as the basis of a study must not contain errors. The article must provide sufficient details and bibliographical references for possible future citations. False or deliberately erroneous statements shall be treated as unethical conduct, and shall be inacceptable.

All overviews and articles expressing professional opinions must likewise be accurate and objective. Any articles expressing the opinions of the editorial staff must be clearly identified as such.

11. Multiple, redundant, and simultaneous publications

In a general case, the author must not publish a manuscript describing essentially one and the same study in more than one scientific journal intended for publishing original studies. The submission of one and the same manuscript simultaneously to more than one journal shall be treated as unethical conduct, and shall be inacceptable.

12. Recognition of sources

The contributions to the submitted work made by other persons must always be explicitly recognized. The author must provide references to those publications that have significantly influenced the character of the submitted work. No information received privately, e. g. during a conversation, through correspondence or in the course of discussion with third parties must be made use of, or reproduced, without an explicitly expressed written permission obtained from its primary source. No information obtained in the course of rendering confidential services must be made use of without an explicit written permission by the author of the study conducted as part of rendering the said confidential services.

13. Significant errors in publications

In an event of discovery of significant errors or inaccuracies in their publication, the author must notify thereof the editor or publisher, and cooperate with them in order to promptly stop the publication or rectify the errors. If the editor or publisher has received information from third parties that a publication contains significant errors, the author shall be obliged to withdraw the article or to rectify the errors within the shortest time.

14. Procedure for settling situations associated with violation of publishing ethics

14.1. Identification of unethical conduct

14.1.1. Unethical conduct may be revealed, and the editor-in-chief or publisher be informed thereof, by any person at any time.

14.1.2. In order to launch a violation investigation, the person informing the editor-in-chief or publisher of a violation of ethics, must provide sufficient information and proof thereof. Each application shall be considered in a uniform procedure, and with regard to each application a final decision or conclusion shall be issued.

14.2. Investigation

14.2.1. The initial decision concerning the conduct of an investigation shall be made by the editor-in-chief who may, whenever necessary, consult the publisher.

14.2.2. During an investigation, all the necessary data must be collected, while at the same time no information thereof may be spread beyond the persons involved in the investigation.

14.3. Insignificant violations

Insignificant violations may be investigated without involving a broader range of persons. In any event, the author must be provided with an opportunity to respond to any suspicions or accusations.

14.4. Serious violations

Serious violations may require that the employer of the person accused of a violation of ethics be notified thereof. The editor-in-chief, after studying on their own the available data, or after additional consultations with a limited range of experts, and requesting whenever necessary that help be provided by the publisher, must make the decision concerning the feasibility of informing thereof the author's employer.

14.4. Sanctions

Sanctions (their severity increasing as follows) may be applied either separately or in a variety of combinations:

14.4.1. A warning letter, issued to the author or reviewer notifying them of the fact of an ethics violation and warning them of the possible consequences.

14.4.2. An official publication on the journal's website of the investigated facts of unethical conduct.

14.4.3. A publication of the editor's note with a detailed description of the committed violation of ethical standards.

14.4.4. An official letter sent to the head of the organization where the author or reviewer are employed, or the organization that funded their studies.

14.4.5. An official cancellation of the article's publication in the journal, with a simultaneous notification thereof of the head of the organization or department where the author or reviewer are employed, the international scientific indexing services, and the journal's readers.

14.4.6. An official ban on the publication of works submitted by a given author, or on the hiring of services of a given reviewer, for an established period of time.

14.4.7. A notification of the committed violation of the professional organization where the violator is a member, as well as of the state supervisory and regulatory agencies for the purpose of further investigation of that case and imposition of appropriate measures.